  # Putting things together

### Equals sign

If you want to assign something to a variable name, you use the single equals sign `=`.

`a=4`

Notice that when I do this, nothing happens. But, if I type `a` into the console, it tells me the value

```a

##  4```

Any time you want to save the result of something, like the results of `InitializeText()`, you have to name it something and use the equals sign to assign the result to the variable.

### Double equals sign

This is different than the double equals sign, which asks if two things are equivalent.

```a
##  4

a == "apple"
##  FALSE

a == 4
##  TRUE```

### Creating vectors

If you want to create your own vector, the simply-named `c()` function does the trick

```a = c(1, 2, 3)
a
##  1 2 3

b = c(4, 5, 6)
b
##  4 5 6```

### Column- and Row-Binding

Sometimes you want to stick two things together. Then `cbind()` and `rbind()` are helpful. Notice the difference between the two in this example,

```cbind(a, b)

## ab
## [1,] 1 4
## [2,] 2 5
## [3,] 3 6

rbind(a, b)

## [,1] [,2] [,3]
##a 1 2 3
##b 4 5 6```

### Transforming data

One of the great things about R is that it acts like a calculator, and it can be used to transform data very easily. For example, say you wanted to transform the height variable in the `cdc` data set from height in meters to height in inches. We know the formula is inches = meters × 39.37, and that’s easy to do in R,

```head(cdc\$height)

##  1.70 1.75 1.80 1.47 1.83 1.68

heightInches = cdc\$height * 39.37

`cdc\$heightInches = cdc\$height * 39.37` 